An epipelagic species (Ref. 6808) found over continental shelves and near oceanic islands (Ref. 6679). Feeds on small pelagic fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 6679). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
- McEachran, J.D. and B. SÃ©ret 1990 Mobulidae. p. 73-76. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4442) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=4442&speccode=2588
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