Found in deeper slope waters (Ref. 4426), but mainly around 200 m (Ref. 3167). Found on sand and sand-rock bottoms (Ref. 6808). Feed on all kinds of bottom animals (Ref. 3167). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 6808. Become sexually mature at a length of about 120 cm (Ref. 35388). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 14.0-23.5 cm long and 11.0-12.0 cm wide (Ref. 41251, 41304).
- McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn 1998 Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
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