Hardy, prefers quiet, well-vegetated waters in lakes, swamps, and marshes or marginal areas of larger rivers and slow-flowing streams. Feeds on a wide variety of small organisms including insects, small snails and crustaceans, algae, diatoms, and detritus. Is preyed upon by the sharptooth catfish, tigerfish, largemouth breams (Serranochromis species) and birds. Spawns amongst vegetation during summer (Ref. 7248).
- Skelton, P.H. 1993 A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7248&speccode=11874
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