Inhabits rocky reefs; also found on muddy grounds. Juveniles occur in shallow waters. Commercially cultured in Japan.
- Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5222&speccode=12
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