A cryopelagic species associated with the underside of ice. An anti-freezing substance enable Individuals to tolerate sub-zero temperature (Ref. 33215). Adults feed on copepods and krill (Ref. 5179). Sexually mature individuals spawn once a year (Ref. 89319). Larval pelagic phase is long (Ref. 89319).
- Dewitt, H.H., P.C. Heemstra and O. Gon 1990 Nototheniidae. p. 279-331. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. (Ref. 5179)
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