Inhabits a wide variety of still water bodies and lowland rivers, usually associated with submerged vegetation or regular flooding. Can strongly tolerate low oxygen concentrations and pollution (Ref. 59043). Lake dwelling individuals move into river mouths to avoid low oxygen water in winter (Ref. 39176). Feeding larvae and juveniles occur in high-complexity habitats as reed belts. Feeds on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant material and detritus. Spawns in shallow, warm shores on submerged vegetation (Ref. 59043). Able to reproduce from unfertilized eggs (gynogenesis) (Ref. 41851). Life span reaches up to about 10 years (Ref. 59043). Eastern European or wild form of the goldfish (Ref. 1739).
- Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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