Mature males characterized by an extended ray on the first dorsal fin which is very long and overlaps the second dorsal fin when folded; courting male can appear turquoise to nearly black, with two "racing" stripes along the length of the body; females and juveniles normally mottled brown to gray-green; both sexes turn black when disturbed (Ref. 44091).
- Yamamoto, M.N. and A.W. Tagawa 2000 Hawai'i's native and exotic freshwater animals. Mutual Publishing, Honolulu, Hawaii. 200 p. (Ref. 44091)
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