Occurs in rocky rapids and cascades in altitudes of 900-1,200 m. Prefers deeper waters (30-60 cm) over cobbles (Ref. 26172). Feeds on benthic invertebrates such as mayfly and caddis fly nymphs, blackfly and midge larvae and small snails. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Breeds during summer and is a partial spawner. Increasing extraction and regulation of river water as well as pollution threaten this species.
- Skelton, P.H. 1993 A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7248&speccode=11874
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