Occur in protected coastal shallows over or among algae, seagrasses (Ref. 41878), or floating weeds (Ref. 1602). Juveniles occasionally found near the surface (Ref. 4281). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The males carry the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Used in Chinese medicine to extract Hailong, one of the important drugs (Ref. 12206). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35416).