Description: (based on 80 specimens): Adult height: 7.0-17.0cm. Rings: 11+36 (34-38). Snout length: 2.3 (2.0-2.6) in head length. Dorsal fin rays: 17-18 covering 2+1 rings. Pectoral fin rays: 16 (15-18). Coronet: low-medium, rounded, overhanging at the back, often with a cup-like depression in the top; sometimes with broad flanges; not spiny. Spines: low, rounded bumps only. Other distinctive characters: deep head; deep body; thick snout. Color pattern: often totally black with a grainy texture; alternatively pale yellow or cream with fairly large, dark spots (especially females); may be sandy colored, blending in with the surroundings.
- Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall 1999 Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=30915&speccode=13100
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