pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 5 - 600 m (Ref. 58302), usually 120 - 166 m (Ref. 48844)
- Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
- Mundy, B.C. 2005 Checklist of the fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Bishop Museum Bulletins in Zoology. Bishop Mus. Bull. Zool. (6):1-704. (Ref. 58302)
- Ebert, D.A. 2003 Sharks, rays and chimaeras of California. California Natural History Guides No. 71. University of California Press. 284 p. (Ref. 48844)
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