Indo-Pacific: Red Sea south to East London, South Africa (Ref. 4420) and east through Indonesia to the Marquesan Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island.
- Matsuura, K. 2001 Balistidae. Triggerfishes. p. 3911-3928. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9770) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9770&speccode=9
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