Adults inhabit mangroves, estuaries, lower reaches of freshwater streams, and harbors with freshwater discharge. Also found in pure fresh water, but always within a few kilometers of the sea (Ref. 2847). They occur in brackish waters of coastal embayments and mangrove estuaries (Ref. 44894). Spawning may take place in both brackish and fresh waters (Ref. 2847). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).