Inhabits coastal waters (Ref. 5213). Plentiful in tidal estuaries (Ref. 2135). Large shoals of juveniles occur around shallow water reefs where they consume shrimps and other small invertebrates, being themselves eaten by larger fish; larger specimens are found in deeper water where they spawn throughout the year. Used extensively for bait, flesh rather insipid (Ref. 2799).
- Roux, C. 1986 Pomadasyidae. p. 327-330. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 2135) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=2135&speccode=399
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