Diagnosis: dorsal fin up to 1.5 times anal fin length; dorsal fin origin nearer caudal fin base than tip of snout; origin of dorsal fin in advance of anal fin (Ref. 52193). Chin with fleshy bulge; snout rounded in front of mouth; eye well above mouth (Ref. 4967). Male develops concavity to the margin of the anal fin, whereas that of female is straight; high back, with dorsal fin approximately 1/3 of total fish length, serves to separate it satisfactorily from other mormyrids in Zimbabwe (Ref. 13337).Description: body relatively deep, compressed; dorsal fin longer than anal; caudal fin forked, with rounded lobes; head rounded with blunt snout; mouth with mental lobe; teeth bicuspid, 56 in each jaw; females usually smaller than males, latter distinguished by notch or kink in anal fin (Ref. 52193).Coloration: greyish brown to dark brown, nearly black, lighter below; dark vertical bar sometimes evident between dorsal and anal fins (Ref. 52193).
- Skelton, P.H. 2001 A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town. 395 p. (Ref. 52193) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=52193&speccode=1396
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