A deep-slope upper continental rise species, common in deep waters of most oceans (Ref. 1371). Bathypelagic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on a variety of benthic invertebrates (especially crustaceans and holothuroids) when young, switching to primarily mesopelagic and bathypelagic fish, and sea urchins and cephalopods as adults (Ref. 1371). Sex ratio was 2.6:1 male to female (n = 449) in the Rockall Tough, N.E. Atlantic (Ref. 40742).
- Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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