Found in coastal tropical and warm temperate waters, occasionally offshore. Sometimes found in small groups (Ref. 5578). Feed on bottom-living crustaceans and mollusks. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449), aplacental (Ref. 57025). Prized angling fish, often released (Ref. 5578). Flesh highly esteemed (Ref. 3965).
- Schneider, W. 1990 FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine resources of the Gulf of Guinea. Prepared and published with the support of the FAO Regional Office for Africa. Rome: FAO. 268 p. (Ref. 2683) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=2683&speccode=7
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