Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to southeastern USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to western Caribbean (Ref. 7251); northern coast of South America (Ref. 5217). Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay round the South African coast to Natal. Indian Ocean: Somalia (Ref. 30573) and off the south-west coast of India. Western Pacific: off Japan, eastern Australia (Ref. 7300) and New Zealand (Ref. 5755).
- Karrer, C. and A. Post 1990 Zeidae. p. 631-633. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6953) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=6953&speccode=4953
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