An onshore schooling species occurring on coastal beaches, sandbars, and surf zones as well as open bays, estuaries, coastal lakes (Ref. 6205), and rivers as far as tidal limits (Ref. 6390). Keep away from shore when older. Live almost exclusively on sandy ground. Juveniles and adolescents are abundant in shallow waters of rivers and creeks, over seagrass beds and in mangroves (Ref. 6223), although they tend to move into deeper water as they grow older (Ref. 6390). Larvae are present in river mouths and mangrove areas most of the year (Ref. 27634). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Feed mostly on polychaetes and crustaceans. Also caught using tunnel nets (Ref. 6205).
- McKay, R.J. 1992 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 14. Sillaginid fishes of the world (family Sillaginidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the sillago, smelt or Indo-Pacific whiting species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(14):87p. (Ref. 6205)
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