Prefers lower and middle sections of rivers in slow moving waters (Ref. 7335). Lives in mud-bottomed and sand-bottomed canals and rocky ponds (Ref. 5723). Stays close to the shoreline vegetation for protection (Ref. 44091). Omnivorous, but feeds mainly on algae (Ref. 6466). Used in behavioral studies (Ref. 4537). Aquarium keeping: minimum aquarium size 100 cm (Ref. 51539).
- Conkel, D. 1993 Cichlids of North and Central America. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., USA. (Ref. 7335)
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