reef-associated; brackish; marine; depth range 3 - 91 m (Ref. 26165), usually 35 - 90 m (Ref. 33989)
- Reader, S.E. and F.J. Neira 1998 Pegasidae: seamoths. p. 116-121. In F.J. Neira, A.G. Miskiewicz and T. Trnski (eds.) Larvae of temperate Australian fishes: laboratory guide for larval fish identification. University of Western Australia Press. 474 p. (Ref. 33989)
- Weitkamp, D.E. and R.D. Sullivan 2003 Gas bubble disease in resident fish of the lower clark fork river. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 132(5):865-876.
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