A pelagic species occurring near shore, entering lagoons and lower reaches of rivers; often in polluted waters (Ref. 59043). Migratory species (Ref. 51442). Spawning takes place at sea near the coast during gatherings between September and February (Ref. 30578, Ref. 51442). The eggs develop in the sea and juveniles colonize the littoral zone and estuaries (Ref. 51442). The adults enter the lower parts of the rivers (Ref. 51442). They live usually inshore, entering lagoons and estuaries and rivers between temperatures 8-24°C. Feed on epiphytic algae, detritus and small benthic or planktonic organisms, pelagic eggs and larvae. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205).
- Thomson, J.M. 1990 Mugilidae. p. 855-859. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7399) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7399&speccode=22487