Coastal species (Ref. 27000). Inhabits rocky and sandy bottoms (Ref. 2683). Juveniles may occur in littoral areas, but not in estuaries. Feeds on shrimps, worms and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates.
- Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas 1990 Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=3593&speccode=419
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