Eastern Atlantic and Western Indian Ocean: western Mediterranean and Gibraltar (Ref. 3593) to the Cape and along the east coast of Africa to the Persian Gulf. Not yet recorded from Namibia but may eventually be found there (Ref. 27121).
- Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas 1990 Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=3593&speccode=419
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