Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea (Ref. 9840) and East Africa to Samoa (Ref. 592) and Tonga (Ref. 53797), north to Japan, south to Australia (Ref. 9840). Represented by multiple color morphs in the Indo-Pacific which may be different species (Ref. 9840).
- Compagno, L.J.V. 1986 Dasyatidae. p. 135-142. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3263) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=3263&speccode=6381