Western Pacific: oceanic islands of Oceania to the Hawaiian and Pitcairn islands. Also known from Wake, Marcus, and Mariana islands. Eastern Central Pacific: southern tip of Baja California, Mexico (Ref. 9267) and other offshore islands.
- Randall, J.E. 2002 Surgeonfishes of the world. Mutual Publishing and Bishop Museum Press, Hawai'i. 123 p. (Ref. 37792)
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