Occurs in rubble and gravel riffles, less often in sand-gravel runs of headwaters, creeks and small rivers. Also found in springs and their effluents and rocky shores of lakes. Feeds mainly on aquatic insect larvae, but also on crustaceans, annelids, fishes, fish eggs, and plant material (Ref. 1998). Feeds on fish, plants and benthic invertebrates (Ref. 1998).
- Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman 1973 Freshwater fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 184:1-966. (Ref. 1998) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=1998&speccode=2594
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