Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA to Santa Catarina, Brazil (Ref. 57756), including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Eastern Central Atlantic: St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121).
- Allen, G.R. 1985 Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=4858&speccode=10352
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