Commonly found on vegetated bottoms, occasionally over rocky bottoms and in mangrove areas. Enters brackish water and even freshwaters. Often forms large aggregations. Feeds mainly on small animals, especially crustaceans, but also takes mollusks, worms and occasionally small fishes that are associated with the grassy habitat.
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7251&speccode=942
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