Occur in sandy and muddy, sometimes rocky, pools of headwaters, creeks, and small to medium rivers; and in sandy shores of lakes (Ref. 5723, 10294); also found in streams (Ref. 10294). Adults feed on midge larvae, mayfly nymphs, caddis larvae, and microcrustaceans; young on entomostracans and tiny midge larvae (Ref. 10294). Eggs are found clustered on underside of stone and guarded by males (Ref. 7043).
- Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5723&speccode=2590
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