Nests side by side arranged in dense colonies near shore. Male digs nest and defends territory during prespawning period. Female approaches nesting colony when nest completed. Mating pairs swim in circles over nest, stop for short intervals to release sperm and egg. Male may chase mate away from nest, female may come back to same nest or move on to mate with another (Ref 4543).
- Thompson, P. 1985 Thompson's guide to freshwater fishes. How to identify the common freshwater fishes of North America. How to keep them in home aquarium. Houghton Mifflin Company, 205 p., Boston, USA. (Ref. 4543)
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