Found frequently in lakes, ponds, reservoirs and sluggish streams (Ref. 5723, 10294); occur primarily in reservoirs in Hawaii; preferably live in deep weed beds (Ref. 5723). Active mainly during dusk and dawn. Adults feed upon snails, small crayfish, insects, worms and small minnows (Ref. 5723). Young feed on crustaceans, insects and worms (Ref. 5723, 10294).
- Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5723&speccode=2590
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