Usually occurs over mud in vegetated lakes, ponds, swamps and quiet water areas of streams.
- Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott 1991 Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Pub. (20):183 p. (Ref. 3814) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=3814&speccode=2595
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