Western Atlantic: disjunct distribution from Bermuda and Chesapeake Bay (USA), including the northern Gulf of Mexico, the Bahamas, and the western Caribbean Sea (Ref. 37039), to Panama.
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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