Eastern Pacific: San Diego in California, USA to Peru including the Galapagos Islands. International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies. Reported from the San Francisco Bay by Alexander Agassiz (Ron Fritzsche, pers.comm. 08/09).
- Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall 1999 Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=30915&speccode=13100
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