Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada and northern Gulf of Mexico to Panama and Venezuela. A southern form that may prove to be a separate species is known from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and questionably from Suriname. International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies.
- Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall 1999 Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915)
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