Found in a wide range of habitats, from near surface to near bottom and sometimes in huge schools (Ref. 2850). May range into coastal waters (Ref. 36711). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 36711). Seems to be sympatric with Macroramphosus scolopax (Linnaeus, 1758) all around the world (Ref. 89357).
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7251&speccode=942
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