Adults occur near shore in beds of vegetation, often around floating vegetation a short distance from shore. Rarely enter fresh water (Ref. 7251). Males build, guard and aerate the nest where the eggs are deposited (Ref. 205).
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7251&speccode=942
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