A marine species that ascends rivers (Ref. 5723, 10294). In fresh water, usually occurs at the surface of clear, quiet water over sand or gravel. Some landlocked populations, many of which have been established in impoundments as forage for sport fishes, reproduce in fresh water (Ref. 5723). Feeds on zooplankton (Ref. 10294).
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7251&speccode=942