African coast from Mauritania south at least to Maçamedes, southern Angola, historically present in the Mediterranean Sea.
- Smith-Vaniz, W.F. and K.E. Carpenter 2007 Review of the crevalle jacks, Caranx hippos complex (Teleostei: Carangidae), with a description of a new species from West Africa. Fish. Bull. 105(2):207-233. (Ref. 58464) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=58464&speccode=63514
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