Common in bays, muddy and rocky areas and kelp beds, also in estuaries (Ref. 36497). Form schools. Adults feed on zooplankton (Ref. 9273), while juveniles feed on algae and kelp fly larvae (Ref. 4930). Demersal spawner in nearshore habitats (Ref. 56049). Oviparous, with planktonic, primarily neustonic larvae (Ref. 36497). Eggs are attached to spawning substrate and to one another by adhesive filaments (Ref. 36497).
- Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=2850&speccode=2592
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