Ranges from intertidal areas (where they may remain out of water under rocks or seaweeds, Ref. 31184) to deeper water over sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 4925). Adults make vertical migrations at night (Ref. 6885). Feed on crustaceans and fishes (Ref. 6885). Oviparous with eggs and larvae attached to nest wall (Ref. 36489). Nest is guarded by male (Ref. 36489). Important prey item for seals and sea lions (Ref. 2850). Adults breathe air when out of water (Ref. 31184). Possess photophores which are arranged on the underside of the head in a 'U' fashion.
- Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=2850&speccode=2592
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