Adults usually occur over mud in swamps, vegetated sloughs, ponds, lakes, backwaters, and quiet pools of creeks and small to large rivers (Ref 5723, 10294). Nocturnal feeders. Feed on aquatic insects, small crustaceans, and occasional small fish including their own young (Ref. 10294). Eggs in nests are guarded by both parents (Ref. 205).
- Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5723&speccode=2590
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