Adults inhabit subterranean waters of quite small cave streams. Preferred habitat in these caves is chert rubble though individuals are also found in areas of silt-sand substrates. Stomachs examined contained copepods which constituted about 70-90% by volume with the balance being primarily small salamanders, crayfish, isopods, amphipods and young of their own species (Ref. 34868). Eggs are carried in gill chambers of females (Ref. 205). Threatened by overfishing (Ref. 10172).
- Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
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