Epipelagic to mesopelagic (Ref. 31442). Adults move upward in large numbers at night (Ref. 28499). Feed on fishes, copepods and euphausiids (Ref. 11712). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 31442). Lipid content is 15.6 % in fresh body weight and wax ester is 90.9 % in total lipids (Ref. 9197).
- Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
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