Worldwide in tropical and temperate seas. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada and northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Spain to South Africa, including western Mediterranean (Ref. 3247); reported from Iceland (Ref. 12462). Regularly found in the Skagerrak (Ref. 35387). Northwest Pacific: Japan (Ref. 6885) and Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819). Eastern Pacific: Alaska (Ref. 6885) to Chile (Ref. 9068), including the Gulf of California (Ref. 32364).
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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