Feeds on bottom plants, insect larvae, small crustaceans and molluscs when in fresh water, while molluscs, annelid worms, crustaceans and small fishes such as sand lance are consumed in the sea (Ref. 59043).
- Bigelow, H.B., M.G. Bradbury, J.R. Dymond, J.R. Greeley, S.F. Hildebrand, G.W. Mead, R.R. Miller, L.R. Rivas, W.L. Schroeder, R.D. Suttkus and V.D. Vladykov 1963 Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Part three. New Haven, Sears Found. Mar. Res., Yale Univ. (Ref. 37032) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=37032&speccode=2590
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