Found in estuaries, lower reaches of large rivers, and in salt or brackish water off river mouths (Ref. 5723). Probably spawns in fresh water (Ref. 27547). May cover considerable distances in the ocean (Ref. 27547). Edible but with a disagreeable taste and unpleasant odor (Ref. 1998).
- Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
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