Eastern Atlantic: southern Bay of Biscay to Angola, including the Mediterranean Sea, Madeira, and Canary Islands. Western Atlantic: Georges Bank to the eastern Gulf of Mexico; southern Brazil to Argentina (Ref. 58839).
- McEachran, J.D. and C. CapapÃ© 1984 Dasyatidae. p. 197-202. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3169) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=3169&speccode=2572