reef-associated; brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 130 m (Ref. 43278), usually 1 - 35 m (Ref. 40849)
- Gasparini, J.L. and S.R. Floeter 2001 The shore fishes of Trindade Island, western South Atlantic. J. Nat. Hist. 35:1639-1656. (Ref. 40849) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=40849&speccode=92
- Compagno, L.J.V. 2001 Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Vol. 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). FAO Spec. Cat. Fish. Purp. 1(2):269p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 43278) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=43278&speccode=88
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